Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 5863
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 153-158

Influence of systematic training on morphophysiological and motor ability profiles of Indian young male kayakers

1 Department of Physiology, Hooghly Mohsin College, The University of Burdwan, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Physiology, Sports Authority of India, Netaji Subhas Eastern Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Submission20-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance25-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication21-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Tamoghni Manna
Department of Physiology, Hooghly Mohsin College, The University of Burdwan, College Road, Hooghly - 712 101, West Bengal
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_585_22

Rights and Permissions

CONTEXT: Little information is there on the training effect on junior Indian kayakers. Hence, it is of great interest to explore the influence of systematic training on morphophysiological and motor ability profiles of Indian young male kayakers.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to find out such a training intensity that would be suitable for junior athletes to reach the zenith of their success.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was carried out in the center of Jagatpur, Sports Authority of India on 11 male kayakers. The training program was divided into eight phases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body height, body weight, body mass index, standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, trunk flexibility, 6 m × 10 m shuttle run, bench pull test/4 min, bench press test/4 min, sit-ups/min, push-ups/min, medicine ball throw, maximal oxygen uptake, 60 m standing start for anaerobic speed endurance, 2.4 km run, and hemoglobin (g%) were measured by the standard procedures.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Training phase differences were determined by analysis of variance, then Schiff's Post hoc test was performed with confidence levels at P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05.
RESULTS: Performing time of 60 m standing start (sec) and 6 m × 10 m shuttle run (sec) was significantly decreased at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. Standing vertical jump performance (cm), sit up/min, and push-up/min were significantly increased at P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively. Bench press performance/4 min and hemoglobin content were significantly improved at P < 0.001.
CONCLUSION: Improvement and betterment were noted in performances even in formally trained athletes. A modified training protocol may be adopted for further improvement.

Keywords: Flexibility, hemoglobin, kayakers, training

How to cite this article:
Manna T, Adhikari S, Syamal AK. Influence of systematic training on morphophysiological and motor ability profiles of Indian young male kayakers. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2023;16:153-8

How to cite this URL:
Manna T, Adhikari S, Syamal AK. Influence of systematic training on morphophysiological and motor ability profiles of Indian young male kayakers. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jan 28];16:153-8. Available from: https://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2023/16/1/153/368338

  Introduction Top

Kayaking is a popular water sport introduced in Olympics in 1936. It involves mostly the shoulder, upper back portion, and aerobic system.[1] Kayak is a sleek boat, the movement of which mainly involves double-bladed paddle with cyclic motion by maintaining coordination and rotation of trunk in seated position. The Olympic events are mostly 200 m (introduced at the London Olympic Games in 2012. The racing events are arranged in trial series before the main competition. As there are structural and physiological dissimilarities between upper-and lower-body musculature, the training regimen for kayaking is very much different from lower-body involved sports. Paddling technique in kayaking can be explained by event completion time, maximizing the average velocity of the kayak, generating high stroke average power, and by paddle blade greater average power forces during the propulsion of the kayak boat.[2] Upper body strength and power training are of greater priority over the lower body of kayakers because of greater attachments in stroke rate. The aim of our present study was to find out the effect of systematic training on young male kayakers following strength, physical, and other physiological testing.

  Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted on 11 male kayakers (n = 11, age = 14.13 ± 1.40). All of them belonged to the Sports Authority of India, Jagatpur of Odisha, India. Each athlete was a state-level performer having 5 years of training experience. Ethical clearance from the concerned university and consent from the participant were taken. Similar nutritional status and similar training regimen were maintained during the training session, for a span of 22 months. For Ethical Clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee Post-Graduate Department of Physiology, University of Burdwan with Ref no: HMC/IEC/BU/02/2022 dated 08.01.2022.

Training regimen

Total training of 10–11 sessions in a week was done, and after five sessions, one break was given. Kayaking mainly relies on upper body movements. Kayaking is a mixture of strength, power, and endurance and uses both alactic and lactic and to a lesser extent the aerobic system. Muscle requires energy to contract and perform.

Training Intensity

Intensity is generated basically in “heart rate” with an indicated “target zone,” focused on the percentage of “maximum heart rate.” Maximum heart rate is achieved by subtracting 220 from athletes' age-indicated stroke rate. The “stroke rate” is very much related to the heart rate, having its own technical effect. Our training was designed according to the need of each discipline as shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Training protocol for male kayakers

Click here to view

Measured parameters

Anthropometric measurement

Body height (cm), body weight (kg), and arm span (cm) were measured using anthropometer/stadiometer, weighing pan, and anthropometrical tape, respectively.

Measurement of strength

This was determined by tests such as standing broad jump (in cm), standing vertical jump (in cm) for lower body explosive strength, trunk flexibility (in cm), 6 m × 10 m shuttle run (sec) for agility, bench pull test/4 min (upper body muscles), bench press test/4 min (chest muscles), sit-ups/min, pushups/min, and medicine ball throw (cm) (upper body strength).

Assessment of physiological parameters

This includes aerobic power (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2 Max], measured in ml/kg/min) by bleep test.[3] Sixty meters standing start for anaerobic speed endurance, 2.4 km run to detect the development of the athlete's aerobic capacity (VO2 max), and hemoglobin (g%) test were done using standard methods.

Statistical analysis

Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Il, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Differences between groups for all parameters according to different training phases were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance, then Schiff's Post hoc test was done for multiple comparisons between groups for all parameters according to different training phases. The level of significance was considered at P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001.

  Results Top

[Table 2] reflects that the performing time of 60 m run (sec) and 6 m × 10 m shuttle run (sec) of male kayakers had reduced progressively and significantly from preparatory period 1 (PP1) to general practice phase (GPP), i.e., from 9.04 ± 0.52 to 8.16 ± 0.42 and 16.40 ± 0.40 to 14.17 ± 0.83, respectively at P < 0.05. All the variables were increased statistically and significantly improved except body height (cm), body weight, and arm span (cm) in the case of male kayakers at the final stage (GPP) as compared to the baseline (PP1).
Table 2: Effect of systematic training on male kayakers

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

Training allows athletes to gain more knowledge of their sports, at the same time, makes them ready to learn about the importance of having a healthy mind and body. An elite kayaker requires powerful and skillful paddling to minimize negative drag forces. [Table 2] depicts that the body height (174.15 ± 7.04) of male kayakers was higher than the females (165 ± 5) of previous research.[4] Body height (cm) (174.15 ± 7.04) and body weight (kg) (66.24 ± 6.09) of our male kayakers are lower than that of the Polish study (184.9 ± 5.8) and (78.1 ± 4.9), respectively.[5] Body mass index (kg/m2) (20.11 ± 1.79) was also lower than those counterparts (22.8 ± 0.9). In our present study, standing vertical jump (cm) was found to significantly and progressively increased in the case of male kayakers, as shown in [Table 2] and [Figure 1] (P < 0.001). Kayaking is a sport with a paddle that immensely relies on a better balance of sitting demanding high metabolism. Leg explosive strength is very much important for kayakers. Sixty meters standing start performance time decreased significantly from 9.04 ± 0.52 to 8.16 ± 0.42 (P < 0.05), as shown in [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. The sit-up performance was found to be significantly and progressively improved from PP1 (53.36 ± 7.06) to the final phase, GPP (126.27 ± 15.08). Push-up the performance of kayakers was increased from 47.55 ± 7.70 to 108.09 ± 16.43 (P < 0.05). Increasing athletic and sport-specific performance rely on specific and sufficient training stimulus. Push-ups such as body weight training involve a group of muscles around the hips, torso, pelvis, and lower back. This exercise increases the balancing power of kayakers along with their muscle strength. 6 m × 10 m shuttle run performance (sec) (16.40 ± 0.40) of male kayakers was significantly increased from PP1 to GPP (14.17 ± 0.83), as shown in [Table 2] and [Figure 3] (P < 0.01). As the lower body's work is an initial part of the load imposed by paddling, kayaker's running training is always beneficial.[6] Bench press/4 min, flexibility (cm), and hemoglobin (g %) were progressively improved in male kayakers, as shown in [Table 2] and in [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]. Their bench press/4 min performance (155.64 ± 16.77) was found to be higher than their international male counterparts (83.8 ± 18.6).[7] Bench presses are mainly used to tone the muscles of the upper body including the pectorals major, arms, and shoulders which are mainly involved in rotating, flexing, and extending, regardless of the paddling intensity of the kayak boat. Flexibility is very much essential for a kayaker as a flexible kayaker can reach easily to the stern for a rudder stroke. Kayakers can have a vertical paddle stroke when they want to move sideways. Kayakers must develop high aerobic capacity for greater metabolic demands to give better performance in competitive events. Hemoglobin percentage is greatly responsible for endurance performance and VO2 Max of in athletes in aerobic kind of sports.[8] Elite endurance athletes have higher hemoglobin content than less well-trained endurance athletes.[9] Effect of detraining is totally absent and improvements are noticed also in the recovery period and after that as they are in proper schedule of exercise and rest.
Figure 1: Standing vertical jump (cm) of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (***) denotes P < 0.001

Click here to view
Figure 2: Sixty meters standing start (sec) performance of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (*) denotes P < 0.05

Click here to view
Figure 3: 6 × 10 meters shuttle run (sec) of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (**) P < 0.01, (***) denotes P < 0.00

Click here to view
Figure 4: Standing Bench press performance (4 min) of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (***) denotes P < 0.001

Click here to view
Figure 5: Hemoglobin content (g%) of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (**) P < 0.01, (***) denotes P < 0.0

Click here to view
Figure 6: Flexibility (cm) of male kayakers. Values = mean ± standard deviation. (*) denotes P < 0.05

Click here to view

It appears that systematic and graded training is essentially required for the improvement of tactical efficiency. Training allows the athlete's body to gradually build up strength, endurance, skill levels, motivation, ambition, and confidence by enhancing the chances of success in competition.

  Conclusion Top

  1. Performance of kayakers has improved significantly after systematic training
  2. Along with training of an athlete proper care should have to be taken for rest between training sessions to avoid overtraining oxidative stress.

Financial support and sponsorship

Fellowship from the Ministry of Higher Education, Government of West Bengal.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Bishop D, Bonetti D, Dawson B. The influence of pacing strategy on VO2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:1041-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
Michael JS, Smith R, Rooney KB. Determinants of kayak paddling performance. Sports Biomech 2009;8:167-79.  Back to cited text no. 2
Manna T, Adhikari S. A comparative study of anthropometric and physical profiles of male junior rowers, kayakers and canoers. Med Sportiva 2018;XIV: 3028-36.  Back to cited text no. 3
Heller J, Pribanova L. Asynchronous and synchronous arm ergometry in trained and untrained subjects. Sci Sports 2009;15:333-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
Hagner-Derengowska M, Hagner W, Zubrzycki I, Krakowiak H, Słomko W, Dzierżanowski M, et al. Body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers: Analysis of junior and teenage polish national canoeing team. Biol Sport 2014;31:323-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
Bunc V, Heller J. Ventilatory threshold and work efficiency on a bicycle and paddling ergometer in top canoeists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1991;31:376-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Hamano S, Ochi E, Tsuchiya Y, Muramatsu E, Suzukawa K, Igawa S. Relationship between performance test and body composition/physical strength characteristic in sprint canoe and kayak paddlers. Open Access J Sports Med 2015;6:191-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
Davy KP, Seals DR. Total blood volume in healthy young and older men. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1994;76:2059-62.  Back to cited text no. 8
Heinicke K, Wolfarth B, Winchenbach P, Biermann B, Schmid A, Huber G, et al. Blood volume and hemoglobin mass in elite athletes of different disciplines. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:504-12.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
   Materials and Me...
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded10    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal