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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 125-129

Epidemiological profile among young patients (≤45 years) suffering from acute myocardial infarction in a tertiary care center in Goa


1 Department of General Medicine, Goa Medical College, Goa, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Goa Medical College, Goa, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhargav Pandurang Sawant Dessai
Sawant Dessai, H. No. 2575, Sasanmoddi, Kakoda, Goa - 403 706
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_413_22

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INTRODUCTION: The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) is increasing among the young population in India. Change in lifestyle is the main reason for such an increase in prevalence. Although MI in young is less severe than in old patients, it causes a significant morbidity to the individual. Young MI has the potential of being a major public health problem in our country and its complications can cause major morbidity and mortality. Hence, it is necessary to understand the prevalence of risk factors in order to improve our strategies for the prevention and management of young MI. AIM: To study profile of young patients (≤45 years) suffering from acute myocardial infarction in a tertiary care centre in Goa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective record-based study was conducted on patients aged ≤45 years who suffered from ST-elevation MI and were admitted in Goa Medical College, Bambolim, from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2021. Data on anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, clinical profile, hospital stay, complications, and other details were extracted from these records. RESULTS: Among the 176 patients, 73 (42%) patients consumed alcohol, 116 (66%) were current smokers, 48 (28%) were diagnosed with hypertension (HTN), 92 (48%) were diagnosed with dyslipidemia, and 34 (20%) were diagnosed with diabetes. Among the patients, 36 (21%) had a history of coronary artery disease and 56 (32%) had a history of HTN. Fifty-three (30%) had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the family; among them, 27 had diabetes and 10 were prediabetic. Fifty-six (31%) participants were admitted for >7 days following MI. Forty-eight (27%) had complications post-MI. Trend analysis showed a significant association of complications and increased hospital stay with type 2 DM (T2DM), HTN, smoking, and dyslipidemia (P < 0.05). Most of the patients 91% of T2DM, 90% of hypertensives, and 83% of patients suffering from dyslipidemia were diagnosed after they were admitted with MI. CONCLUSION: As we already know that the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) is already rising in the general population, there is also an alarming rising trend of IHD in young people too. This study provides the prevalence of assorted risk factors in young MI. The rising trend of complications with an increase in risk factors studied in our group makes early diagnosis imperative for better management and prevention of complications. Increased burden of IHD in young people will lead to decreased quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality and also have an increased economic burden for the society. This underscores the importance of building capacity of the primary health-care system for early detection of diabetes, HTN, and dyslipidemia and making people aware of unwarranted effects of smoking and alcohol consumption. Proper management and prevention of the above said risk factors would go a long way in preventing young MI as described in this study.


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