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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 314-315

Moving forward toward the goal of meningitis-free world by 2030: Potential strategies


1 Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission08-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance23-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_125_22

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  Abstract 


Meningitis is a life-threatening and incapacitating condition that has been associated with significant amounts of fear, predominantly because of the high case fatality rate. Meningitis is one of the vaccine-preventable diseases, nevertheless, we significantly lack in our efforts directed toward the containment of the infection when compared with other diseases for which vaccines are available. Acknowledging the magnitude of the disease, the ability of the infection to result in a fatal outcome, and the availability of potent and effective vaccines, the World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated a road map to contain meningitis infection. To conclude, meningitis is a global public health concern and has been associated with a wide range of detrimental sequels. The need of the hour is that we join our hands together and work in collaboration with the community toward the successful elimination of meningitis.

Keywords: Community, elimination, meningitis


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Moving forward toward the goal of meningitis-free world by 2030: Potential strategies. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2022;15:314-5

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Moving forward toward the goal of meningitis-free world by 2030: Potential strategies. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 25];15:314-5. Available from: https://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2022/15/3/314/356262




  Introduction Top


Meningitis is a life-threatening and incapacitating condition that has been associated with significant amounts of fear, predominantly because of the high case fatality rate.[1] The epidemics of meningitis have been reported around the globe, with maximum number being reported in the sub-Saharan African region.[1] In general, it has been observed that 10% of meningitis patients succumb to the infection, while 20% tend to develop serious complications attributed to the infection.[1] The available global estimates revealed that close to 0.25 million deaths have been attributed to the infection in 2019.[1] Further, 20% of the affected persons experienced some kind of debilitating consequences, which in turn accounted for a massive impact on the emotional and socioeconomic aspects of individuals, family members, and society.[1],[2] Moreover, as the infection affects people of all ages, with the disease has been reported in all nations around the world, and the ability of the infection to cause potential epidemics, it becomes quite essential that steps should be taken to contain the infection on the global scale.[1],[2]


  Present Scenario Top


Meningitis is one of the vaccine-preventable diseases, nevertheless, we significantly lack in our efforts directed toward the containment of the infection when compared with other diseases for which vaccines are available.[2],[3] This is an alarming cause of concern as it is a direct indicator that we have fallen short in ensuring the administration of vaccines.[1],[3] Acknowledging the magnitude of the disease, the ability of the infection to result in a fatal outcome, and the availability of potent and effective vaccines, the World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated a road map to contain meningitis infection.[4] This action plan has been designed to keep the ultimate aim of moving toward a world free of meningitis, wherein cooperation from different stakeholders has been envisaged. In the broad sense, the attainment of targets will significantly aid toward the accomplishment of universal health coverage.[1],[4]


  Roadmap to Accomplish Meningitis Free World Top


The roadmap designed by the WHO has set goals to eliminate the occurrence of epidemics of bacterial meningitis, bring about a decline in meningitis cases that can be prevented through administration of vaccines by 50% and mortality by 70%, and minimize the impact of disability, thereby ensuring improvement in the quality of life of patients who have acquired the infection due to any etiology.[1],[4] Even though these goals are framed keeping in mind all kinds of meningitis, our primary focus is on the microbial agents responsible for acute bacterial meningitis. These are ambitious goals and will obviously require specific actions to make considerable progress toward the attainment of the same.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8]

The first and foremost actions should be directed toward measures to prevent and control epidemics, and this will require the development of vaccines that are affordable, improving the immunization coverage, strengthening of preventive measures, and upscaling the emergency response to epidemics.[1],[5] The next aspect to eliminate meningitis is through improving the diagnostic capabilities through strengthening and expansion of the laboratory networks that will enable early detection of the infection. This prompt diagnosis will play an instrumental role in enabling optimal management of the infection and thus reduce the chances of development of any complications, including death.[5],[6]

As the cases of meningitis can be reported in any part of the world, including the rural and remote settings, which might lack access to health-care services or health information systems, it is quite possible that we might miss many cases of meningitis.[4],[7] There arises the need to strengthen the surveillance activities and ensure 100% reporting of the cases, as it will help the policymakers to plan evidence-based strategies and ensure rational allocation of scarce resources.[4],[5],[6] The next strategy is to extend care and support for the people who have been diagnosed with the infection so that the impact of the sequels of the infection can be minimized through the augmentation of rehabilitation services.[6],[7]

We must realize that sustainability of these measures and the attainment of successful outcomes will depend upon the extent of community involvement and level of awareness about the infection. Thus, specific measures should be planned to augment the awareness about the infection, the preventive measures, and the services available in health-care facilities among the general population.[5],[6],[7] In addition, there is a definite need to formulate specific policies and guidelines to enable the strengthening of all the ongoing activities (namely, prevention, detection, treatment, monitoring).[7],[8] Finally, as there are many competing priorities, it will not be feasible to run these activities in isolation, rather these activities should be integrated with prevention and control activities aimed at targeting various other diseases as well and supplement them with the overall strengthening of the primary level of health care.[6],[7],[8]


  Conclusion Top


To conclude, meningitis is a global public health concern and has been associated with a wide range of detrimental sequels. The need of the hour is that we join our hands together and work in collaboration with the community toward the successful elimination of meningitis.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Defeating Meningitis by 2030; 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/initiatives/defeating-meningitis-by-2030. [Last accessed on 2022 Feb 08].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Fall A, Bita AF, Lingani C, Djingarey M, Tevi-Benissan C, Preziosi MP, et al. Elimination of epidemic meningitis in the African region: Progress and challenges: 2010-2016. J Immunol Sci 2018;1 (Suppl):41-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bottomley MJ, Serruto D, Sáfadi MA, Klugman KP. Future challenges in the elimination of bacterial meningitis. Vaccine 2012;30 Suppl 2:B78-86.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
World Health Organization. Defeating Meningitis by 2030: A Global Road Map. Geneva: WHO Press; 2021. p. 1-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Nearing elimination of meningitis A from the African “meningitis belt” using meningococcal A conjugate vaccine. Germs 2016;6:66-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Maïnassara HB, Paireau J, Idi I, Pelat JP, Oukem-Boyer OO, Fontanet A, et al. Response strategies against meningitis epidemics after elimination of serogroup a Meningococci, Niger. Emerg Infect Dis 2015;21:1322-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Cissé MF, Breugelmans JG, Bâ M, Diop MB, Faye PC, Mhlanga B, et al. The Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis following conjugate vaccine introduction in Senegal. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010;29:499-503.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kuehn BM. Global plan targets elimination of bacterial meningitis epidemics. JAMA 2021;326:1898.  Back to cited text no. 8
    




 

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   Abstract
  Introduction
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   Roadmap to Accom...
  Conclusion
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