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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 76-80

Spectrum of immunophenotypic aberrancies in acute leukemia along with their correlation with adverse hematological parameters

Department of Pathology, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sana Ahuja
4 Old Survey Road, Dehradun, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_170_21

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BACKGROUND: The identification of aberrant phenotypes in acute leukemia is crucial for treatment monitoring and minimal residual disease analysis. Flowcytometric immunophenotyping in acute leukemia is an important tool for the detection of these aberrancies. There is wide variation in the incidence of aberrant antigens in acute leukemia in different studies and its correlation with prognostic markers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of this study is to assess the frequency of aberrant markers in acute leukemia and determine any association with hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia during the period January 2018–December 2020 were included. The flowcytometric immunophenotyping of all the above cases was done using BD FACS Canto II. RESULTS: Out of the total 150 cases of acute leukemia, 56.7% expressed aberrant phenotype. The proportional frequency of aberrant antigen expression in B-acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), T-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was 56.6%, 50%, and 58.5%, respectively. CD13, CD13, and CD7 were the most common aberrancies in B-ALL, T-ALL, and AML, respectively. Aberrant myeloid phenotype in B-ALL was associated with lower mean total leukocyte count (TLC) and blast percentage in peripheral blood as compared to the B-ALL with conventional phenotypes. Aberrant lymphoid phenotype in AML was associated with a higher TLC and greater blast percentage in peripheral blood than the AML with conventional phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Aberrant lymphoid phenotype in AML is associated with unfavorable hematological features. However, aberrant myeloid phenotype in B-ALL is not associated with adverse features.

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