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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 132-138

Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma: A one-year hospital-based cross-sectional study

Department of Respiratory Medicine, JN Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Srinija Kummaraganti
9-223, Opp. Sarpavaram Police Station, Sarpavaram Junction, Ramanayyapeta, Kakinada - 533 005, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_222_18

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases. In India, bronchial asthma has 66% frequency of reported exacerbations. Vitamin D has action on pro-inflammatory mediators and smooth muscle function and proliferation, which has a direct relevance for lung function in asthma. This study was done to investigate the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in patients presenting with asthma exacerbations and to assess the correlation between decreased levels and various indicators of severity of exacerbations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 118 participants of whom 93 patients had acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma were included in this study. Vitamin D levels were analyzed among different subgroups based on asthma control, severity, and severity of exacerbations. Vitamin D levels were correlated to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted, body mass index (BMI), steroid use, and number of exacerbations in the previous 1 year. RESULTS: Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency was 88.2%. Mean Vitamin D (± standard deviation [SD]) level was 12.50 ± 6.41 ng/ml, which was lower than that of patients in remissions (30.61 ± 4.00 ng/ml). Mean FEV1% predicted (±SD) was 54.06% ±15.39%. Patients with severe asthma and uncontrolled asthma had the lowest Vitamin D levels compared to the other subgroups (P < 0.0001). Vitamin D levels were lower in patients with severe exacerbation (8.61 ± 4.16 ng/ml) as compared to mild-moderate exacerbation (17.44 ± 5.25 ng/ml). Vitamin D levels were positively correlated with FEV1% predicted (r = 0.66) and were negatively correlated with BMI (r = −0.89), steroid usage (r = −0.85), and the number of exacerbations in the previous 1 year (r = −0.83). All were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients during exacerbations of bronchial asthma. It is also associated with lower lung functions and increased number of exacerbations. Thus, improving Vitamin D status might be effective in the prevention and treatment of bronchial asthma and exacerbations.

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