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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39-41

A study to evaluate the effectiveness of structured counseling program on quality of life among HIV infected postnatal mothers

1 Department of OBG Nursing, KLE University Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum, India
2 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, HIHT University College of Nursing, Dehradun, India
3 Department of Community Health Nursing, KLE University's Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum, India

Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sudha Raddi
Department of OBG Nursing, KLE University's Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2349-5006.135036

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Objectives of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of structured counseling program on quality of life (QoL) and to find out the association between pre test level of QoL and selected demographic variables.
A study was conducted on 80 HIV infected postnatal mothers by using the True experimental Solomon four group research design and data were analyzed in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics.
In conclusion, it was inferred that the structured counseling program was effective on quality of life among HIV infected postnatal mothers and selected variables did not have significant association with QoL

Keywords: HIV, Quality of life, structured counselling programme

How to cite this article:
Raddi S, Prakash R, Dandagi S. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of structured counseling program on quality of life among HIV infected postnatal mothers. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2014;7:39-41

How to cite this URL:
Raddi S, Prakash R, Dandagi S. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of structured counseling program on quality of life among HIV infected postnatal mothers. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 May 17];7:39-41. Available from: https://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2014/7/1/39/135036

  Introduction Top

"AIDS attacks the body: Prejudice attacks the spirit. One is caused by a virus, one is caused by ignorance. Both can kill." (New Zealand AIDS Foundation). [1]

Addressing the press on International Nurses Day, on May 12, 2003, in Geneva, the International Council of Nurses President, Christine Hancock declared, "stigma prevents societies from addressing human immuno deficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with the appropriate health care services, legal, and education strategies.

What stops them is HIV prejudice and all that will stop HIV prejudice is speaking openly about the fact. [1] While discussing the difficulties in communicating on HIV/AIDS, the magazine "action aid" quotes the words of a student from Chennai, who confessed that when she discussed with her mother about having an AIDS education program, she said, "you learn and come home and talk about it in the neighborhood, they will kick you." [2]

More than 25 million people have died of AIDS since 1981. By the end of 2005, women accounted for 48% of all adults lining with HIV worldwide. [1] As per the update information on July 1, 2006, world over 30-40 million people are HIV infected with means 1 in 250 persons is HIV infected. Ninety percent of HIV cases are in the developing countries. Twelve thousand of the new infections occurring everyday are among people aged between 15 and 49, the reproductive and economically productive age group. Fifty percent of the new infections in this age group occur among women and 50% are in the age group of 15-24, the youth of the countries. [2]
"I would rather be HIV positive than barren woman," said Aruna, one HIV uninfected woman whose husband was HIV positive. [3] Such is the personal and social scenario of women in India who cannot escape this death trap of HIV/AIDS. Each mother's death is an individual tragedy, made inevitable by the inequalities that condition women's lives. Peter Piot, the executive Director of UNAIDS, remarked that there has been "ferminization of the epidemic of HIV/AIDS." He said "Every year we seen an increase in the number of women infected with HIV. And since women are the main caregivers and source of household labor, their illness means the collapse of the family community care systems and household protection. [4] Every 20 s a new infection occurs in a woman somewhere in the world. [5]

India has the second highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. After South Africa, India accounts almost 10% of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS globally and over 60% of the 7.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS in Asia and pacific region. [6]

Karnataka is one of the six states with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. A total of 26,399 HIV/AIDS cases have been reported in the state between 1987 and January 2004. Of them, 25,056 were native of the state. Belgaum division comprising of Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Dharwad, Haveri, Gadag and Uttar Kannada district topped the list of HIV/AIDS cases, with an estimate of 7698 cases followed by Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society expressed HIV burden in Karnataka is high with 1.5% of the adult population being infected and there are at least 20 districts with mean prevalence of more than 1%, including Belgaum, Koppal, Bagalkot and Dharwad District.[7]

Quality of life (QoL) is affected by the existing stress levels and coping strategies used by the postnatal mother with HIV infection. QoL measures are increasingly used to supplement objective clinical or biological measures of disease, to assess the quality of service, the need for health care, the effectiveness of intervention and in cost utility analyses. Their use reflects a growing appreciation of the importance of how patients feel and how satisfied they are with treatment in addition to the traditional focus on disease outcome. In their respect, QoL measures capture patient's perspective of their preferences for treatment and outcomes. They are hailed as being patient centered.[8]

  Materials and Methods Top

The study consisted of 80 HIV infected postnatal mothers who were selected using Randomized Solomon four group design. The conceptual frame work used for the present study was based on Imogene M. King's Theory of Goal Attainment. It identifies factors of perception, judgment, interaction, and transaction between the research investigator and postnatal mothers regarding HIV. The model contributes a solution for understanding how clients can gain QoL through structured counseling program. Data were collected using William C. Holmes HIV/AIDS-targeted QOL scale.

  Results Top

The major findings of the study were as follows:

Findings related to background information on human immuno deficiency virus infected postnatal mothers

According to the age group majority 45 (56.25%) were in the age group of 25-29 years, and 03 (3.75%) were below 19 years. With respect to the marital status 42 (52.5%) were married, 3 (3.75%) were unmarried, 17 (21.25%) were divorcee and 18 (22.5%) were widow. Majority 38 (47.5%) belonged to nuclear family, 11 (13.75%) belonged to extended family. Majority of women, 57 (71.25%) expressed unsatisfactory relationship with their spouse, only 23 (28.75%) expressed satisfactory relationship with their spouse. 24 (30%) of HIV infected postnatal mothers had higher secondary education, while 24 (30%) had primary, 18 (22.5%) had secondary and 13 (16.25%) had graduation completed. Similarly, among husbands of the HIV infected postnatal mothers majority 35 (43.75%) had primary education while 22 (27.5%) had secondary, 13 (16.25%) had higher secondary and 10 (12.5%) had completed graduation. About the occupation among HIV infected postnatal mothers majority 32 (40%) were skilled workers, 24 (30%) were unskilled workers, 21 (26.25%) were unemployed and minimum 3 (3.75%) were professional. Regarding their husbands, maximum 45 (56.25%) were skilled workers, 33 (41.25%) were unskilled, 12 (15%) were professional and minimum 10 (12.5%) were unemployed. Maximum 42 (52.5%) had monthly income of Rs. 4001-5000, 22 (27.5%) had income of Rs. 5001 and above, 12 (15%) had Rs. 3001-4000 and minimum 4 (5%) had below Rs. 2000 monthly income. Maximum support for the HIV infected postnatal mother was through their parents 35 (43.75%), spouse support among 22 (27.5%), inlaws 13 (16.25%) support and 20 (25%) from significant others. Majority of the husbands 56 (70%) were HIV infected, 18 (22.5%) were not infected and 6 (7.5%) were not knowing whether their husbands were HIV infected or no. Most of the HIV infected postnatal mothers 53 (66.25%) did not have any information about HIV prior to diagnosis and minimum 27 (33.75%) had some information about HIV prior to diagnosis. Maximum 34 (42.5%) HIV infected postnatal mothers were infected since 3-5 years, 20 (25%) since 1-3 years, 14 (17.5%) since more than 5 years and 12 (15%) since <1 year. Most of the HIV infected postnatal mothers child 34 (42.5%) were not infected with HIV, 24 (25%) were infected with HIV and 22 (27.5%) were infected. 46 (38.33%) HIV infected postnatal mothers did not know how they have contracted HIV infection, 18 (15%) said they contracted from sexual partners, 13 (10.83%) from mothers, and 3 (2.5%) from hospital.

Description of quality of life of human immuno deficiency virus infected postnatal mothers as measured by human immune deficiency virus/AIDS-targeted-quality of life scale

Raw and transformed scores of overall function, life satisfaction, health worries, financial worries, HIV medications, Feeling about being HIV positive, disclosure worries, feeling about doctor, and sexual function.

Pretest scores [Table 1] and Posttest scores [Table 2] were computed according to the instruction given to compute domain scores and transformed raw scores.
Table 1: Pretest QOL scores

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Table 2: Posttest QOL scores

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Association between pretest level of quality of life and selected demographic variables

No statistically significant association was found between QoL and selected variables such as age

(χ² =0.951 at df 3), marital status (χ² =0.992 at df 3), type of family (χ² =0.994 at df 2), educational status (self) (χ² =0.884 at df 3), educational status (husband)

(χ² =0.972 at df 3), occupational status (self) (χ² =0.978 at df 3), occupational status (husband) (χ² =0.999 at df 3), monthly income of family (χ² =0.793 at df 3), support in time of need (χ² =0.181 at df 3), husband's HIV infection status (χ² =0.9991 at df 2), information about HIV prior to diagnosis (χ² =0.7331 at df 1), knowing since when you are HIV infected (χ² =0.8861 at df 3), status of child infected with HIV (χ² =0.3592 at df 2), how do you think you have contracted HIV infection

(χ² =0.9999 at df 3) among HIV infected postnatal mothers at 0.05 level of significance.

  Conclusion Top

Based on the analysis of findings of the study, the following inference was drawn.

There was a significant increase in the QoL scores and the analysis of variance showed no homogeneity in both pre and posttest scores and indicated more scope for improvement of overall function scores. Thus, it was inferred that the structure counseling program was effective. The selected variables did not have significant association with QoL.

  References Top

1.Report on International Nurses day. ICN; 2003, May 12. Available from: http://www/icn.ch/indkit 2003.pdf. [Last accessed on 2008 ].  Back to cited text no. 1
2.The sound of silence: difficulties in communicating on HIV/AIDS in schools (Experiences from Indian and Kenya), Action Aid; 2003. Available from: http://www.Hivaidsclearinghouse.Unisco.org/ev/php?ID=2043-201 and ID2=DO_topic. [Last accessed on 2011].  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Panda S, Chatterjee A, Abdul-Quader AS. Living with the AIDS Virus. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.; 2002. p. 17-8, 77-88.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Baveja UK, Rewari BB. Diagnosis and Management of HIV/AIDS - A Clinicians Perspective. 2 nd ed. New Delhi: BI Publications Pvt. Ltd.; 2005. p. 1-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Shah V. Technical Paper on Gender, Vulnerabilities and HIV/AIDS. New Delhi: UNIFEM; 2003. p. 19. Available from: http://www.unifem.org.in/pdf/HIV/complete.pdf. [Last accessed on 2009].  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Ousepparampil S. MDG vision: Rolling back HIV/AIDS pandemic through healthy mothers and healthy children. Health Action; 2006, April. p. 15-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Draft Report-NGO Consultation: Mainstreatming of HIV/AIDS, 2005 Sept. Available from: http://www.ncw.nic.in/FINAL_REPORT_REVISED.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012].  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Nicholas PK. Women and HIV: Symptoms and Quality of Life in Women, San Francisco AIDS Foundation; 2004-2005.  Back to cited text no. 8


  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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